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In the OT one who lives nearby (Exod 12:4; Jer 12:14; Prov 27:10) or, figuratively, one who is a fellow Israelite (Exod 2:13; 1Sam 28:17). As members of a community united by divine covenant, law, and teaching, the Israelites had obligations to God reflected in their moral obligations to each other. Thus, they were commanded not to covet their neighbor’s wife or possessions (Exod 20:16-17; Deut 5:20-21); not to hold a neighbor’s garment for pledge past sunset (Exod 22:25-26); and so forth. Each Israelite was told “to love your neighbor as yourself” (Lev 19:18). In the NT, Jesus quotes Lev. 19:18, but broadens the sphere of responsibility beyond the community of fellow Israelites, as he makes clear in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:27-37). Thus, references in the NT to loving one’s neighbor are to be understood as referring to any human being (Rom 13:8-9; Gal 5:14; Jas 2:8).